1.      What is the big question that this study is trying to ask?

2.   The authors conducted three main data collection experiments and analyses. Fill out this table explaining the purpose and major finding of each of these

Experiment Why did they do this? What did they find?


  1. The authors say that a limitation of this study is that they under sampled viral genomes because of” the high proportion of cases (80%) with asymptomatic or mild disease who do not get tested”. Why do you think this is a limitation?

4.  Describe and interpret Figure 2A. (Remember: interpret means you look at the figure and decide what the big point of the figure is!)

5.  The authors conclude that their data show the benefits of” shelter-in-place”. What evidence do they provide for this argument?

6.  Based on the data and information in this paper, do you think the vaccine for coronavirus will need to be updated more or less often than the vaccine for the flu?

7.  The Biden administration announced that they will be spending 1 billion dollars on genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on April 16, 2021. For reference, the most recent proposed federal budget has 7.5 billion for human spaceflight, 4.9 billion for forest fire management, and 1 billion for mental health care in K12 schools. Based on this paper, do you think 1 billion is too high, too low, or just right? Justify your answer because there is no right answer.

8.  The general topic of this week was using phylogenies to understand evolution. Describe a phylogenetic study you would like to do. (It is okay if it has already been done.) Explain what organisms you would like to study and why.