Posted: August 17th, 2022

Europe in the Twentieth Century

Final Exam take home

Europe in the Twentieth Century



Please put your name and student number at the top of the page.  Also, please include your surname in the save file name.

For each of the two parts of this exam, choose one of the two questions offered.  Answers must be in proper essay format and contain a short introduction with thesis, body, and conclusion.  You may draw only from material assigned for this course to answer the chosen questions.  This includes lecture material, Jarausch’s Out of Ashes, posted YouTube videos, or any of the articles used in the reading reflection assignments to this point.  You do not need to include a bibliography, but when you use ideas, paraphrase, or directly quote material from another source you must use footnotes.  Anything that is not considered common knowledge needs a reference.  For these, please use Chicago Style citations.  Examples of this can be found at or  I have also posted material on citations on Brightspace under the Writing Help tab.  Do not use material outside that which has been assigned or posted to Brightspace.  This gives me a sense of how well you’re engaging with that course material overall.

Please limit your answers to between three (3) and five (5) pages per question, double-spaced.  Completed exams should range between six (6) and ten (10) written pages.




  1. Discuss Europe’s economic and cultural integration following the Second World War and contrast this to Germany’s position in the aftermath of World War I. How did policies enacted in Europe across these two periods differ and why was integration more successful in preventing a German military resurgence after WWII?  Please develop a proper thesis as to why this was or was not the case.


  1. Compare and contrast protest movements in Eastern and Western Europe across the postwar period, including the RAF but excluding the revolutions of 1989. Considering at least one from the East and one from the West, discuss the origins of these movements, the roles played by state actions and interventions, and the escalation of violence.  How did these movements perceive, understand, or conceptualize the power wielded by the state?  Did these movements across the East/West divide draw similar conclusions regarding the perceived totalitarianism of their respective states in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s?



  1. Compare Gorbachev’s policies of glasnost and perestroika with Alexander Dubček’s Socialism with a Human Face. Aside from “twenty-years,” as Gorbachev once joked was the only difference between the two, what were the similarities and differences between these policies of democratizing socialist economic policies?  Did anything change in the Soviet Union in the intervening years to make such policies acceptable and why were the Bloc states willing or not to follow the Soviet lead?


  1. How significant was the role played by Gorbachev in the peaceful revolutions of 1989? How did Gorbachev’s policies, designed to introduce economic stability to the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc broadly, contribute to the pollical instability of the entire Bloc?  How did Gorbachev’s reluctance toward military force and a repeat of the Prague Spring undermine the authority of the other communist party leaders?  Discuss with reference to at least two Bloc states (the USSR not included).

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