Posted: August 6th, 2022

Explain how perception is invisible to us but it is not automatic. Give at least two examples to support your thinking.

Chapter 3

1. Explain how perception is invisible to us but it is not automatic. Give at least two examples to support your thinking.

2. What two types of information are used by the human perceptual system? Give an example of an act of perception and identify each of the two types in the example.

3. Compare and contrast the four conceptions of object perception (unconscious inference, Gestalt laws, environmental regularities, and Bayesian inference). How do these ideas differ? In what ways are they similar?

4. Describe the function of mirror neurons. Why do you think intention plays a role in the mirroring process? Give an example to support your thinking.

5. Explain how the object discrimination problem and the landmark discrimination problem help show which pathways in the brain are responsible for different cognitive abilities. How does damage to different lobes of the brain make these tasks more difficult, and what pathways are involved?

Chapter 4

1. Compare and contrast Broadbent’s and Treisman’s models of attention. How are they similar? How do they differ? Which model is considered “leaky” and why?

2. Compare and contrast stimulus salience and scene schemas. Give an example using one visual stimulus to identify elements that fit each category.

3. Explain how operant conditioning plays a role in people’s use of cell phones, even in situations where they should not. What strategies could be employed to minimize this process?

4. Explain the difference between inattentional blindness and change blindness. Give an example of each to support your thinking.

5. Define selective attention, divided attention, and attentional capture. Give an example of each to support your thinking.

6. Compare and contrast processing capacity and perceptual load. Give an example of a low-load and a high-load task that you experienced today.

Chapter 6

1. Explain how research on brain-damaged individuals informs our understanding of priming in implicit memory.

2. Explain the difference between “knowing” and “remembering” from Tulving’s perspective. Give an example of each to support your thinking.

3. Explain how our episodic memories are linked to the future. Give an example that illustrates the adaptive role of memory in this context.

4. In one or two sentences, write an autobiographical memory of something you recently experienced. Then identify the episodic and semantic components of that memory.

5. For years, propaganda has been deployed by political leaders and systems in a variety of contexts. From a cognitive psychology perspective, explain why such efforts are often effective.

6. Describe the concept of semanticization of remote memories. Give examples across time to support your thinking.

 

Chapter 8

1. Define source monitoring errors and describe some research that illustrates them. Then explain why these errors reinforce the characterization of memory as being “constructive.”

2. An important application of memory research has been in understanding the nature of eyewitness testimony. Citing the research in your text, explain why people make errors in eyewitness testimony.

3. Explain why a flashbulb memory is both special and ordinary. Provide an example of a flashbulb memory from your own experience to support your thinking.

4. Explain why it is better that we cannot remember every single thing that we experience.

  
5. In the discussion of the case of Robert Cotton, the text states that Jennifer Thompson “remembered” Cotton as being the man who attacked her in 1984. Explain why the word remembered was in quotes, both in the context of the case and in a broader context of overall memory.

6. Provide an example of when you experienced the Proustian effect. What was your response to the experience?

 

Chapter 11

1. Define inference as it applies to text processing. Write a sample narrative paragraph that includes examples of anaphoric inference, instrument inference, and causal inference. Identify and describe each occurrence.

2. Compare and contrast Skinner’s and Chomsky’s views on language acquisition. Give examples of each perspective to support your ideas.

3. If human speech is just an ongoing stream of sounds, how are computerized voice recognition systems able to function effectively? What “human” capabilities and qualities do they need to be programmed with? Give examples to support your thinking.

4. Identify the types of meaning dominance in language. Give examples of each to support your thinking.

5. Conversation is often described as a “give and take” that is generally more effective when people are “on the same page.” Explain these concepts from the perspective of cognitive psychology. Provide examples to support your ideas.

6. Explain how language and music are both similar and different.

 

Chapter 12

 

1. Compare and contrast functional fixedness and mental set. Give examples of each in the context of problem solving to support your thinking.

2. What did Newell and Simon mean when stating that problem solving is a search? Be sure to use concepts and terms from the text to support your answer.

3. From a cognitive psychology perspective, explain why it might be beneficial for a company to hire recent graduates rather than people who have lengthy experience in the company’s field of business.

4. What are potential drawbacks to group brainstorming? What strategies could be used to address these issues?

5. Describe methods a person can use to increase his or her creativity. If you use any of these methods, give an example of how it has been helpful. If not, which method do you think would be most useful for you and why?

 

Chapter 13

1. Define both deductive and inductive reasoning, and explain how they are different. Give examples of each to support your thinking.

2. Discuss how a person’s judgments are affected by the way choices are framed. Give an example of a choice framed in terms of gains and an example of a choice framed in terms of losses. Which decision-making strategy is likely to be used in each case? Why?

3. Explain the difference between validity and truth in deductive reasoning. Provide examples of each concept to support your thinking.

4. Compare and contrast myside bias and confirmation bias. Give an example of each concept to support your thinking.

5. Why might training in media literacy be important for young people? Ground your argument in cognitive psychology concepts, and provide examples from the current media landscape to support your opinion.

 

6. What is the backfire effect? What cognitive factors are at work in this process? Describe a time when you have experienced the backfire effect with someone else—either exhibiting it or receiving it.

 

7. Explain the meaning of the statement, “Justice is what the judge had for breakfast.” What cognitive factors are implicated in this perspective? How might this impact our legal system, and what strategies could be employed to address it?

8. Compare and contrast the “system” and “type” approaches to thinking. Why do professionals generally favor one perspective over the other? Give examples of situations from each perspective to support your thinking.

 

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